The media of Japan include numerous television and radio networks as well as newspapers and magazines in Japan. For the most part, television networks were established based on capital invesetments by existing radio networks. For the most part, variety shows, serial dramas, and news constitute a large percentage of Japanese evening shows.

Western movies are also shown, many with a subchannel for English. There are all-English television channels on cable and satellite (with Japanese subtitles).


There are 6 nationwide television networks, as follows:

NHK is a public service broadcaster. The company is financed through “viewer fees,” similar to the licence fee system used in the UK to fund the BBC. NHK deliberately maintains neutral reporting as a public broadcast station, even refusing to mention commodity brand names] NHK has 2 terrestrial TV channels, unlike the other TV networks (in the Tokyo region—channel 1 (NHK General TV) and channel 3 (NHK Educational TV).
Nippon Television Network System (NNS)/Nippon News Network (NNN) headed by Nippon Television (NTV). In the Tokyo region, channel 4.
The Tokyo Broadcasting System holding company owns the Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS) station (which is broadcast nationally) and the Japan News Network (JNN) which supplies news programming to TBS and other affiliates. In the Tokyo region, channel 6.
Fuji Network System (FNS) and the Fuji News Network (FNN) share the flagship station Fuji Television. Part of the Fujisankei Communications Group, a keiretsu, which also has the Sankei Shimbun newspaper.
TV Asahi Network/All-Nippon News Network (ANN) headed by TV Asahi.
TV Tokyo Network (TXN) headed by TV Tokyo.

Radio networks

AM radio
NHK Radio 1, NHK Radio 2
Japan Radio Network (JRN)—Flagship Station: TBS radio (TBS???)
National Radio Network (NRN)—Flagship Stations: Nippon Cultural Broadcasting (????) and Nippon Broadcasting System (??????)
Radio Nikkei is an independent shortwave station broadcasts nationwide in two content channels.

FM radio
Japan FM Network (JFN)—Tokyo FM Broadcasting Co.,ltd.
Japan FM League—J-Wave Inc.
MegaNet—FM Interwave (InterFM)


Weekly magazines
Aera (???)
Friday (?????) – photo magazine
Josei Jishin (????) – for women
Nikkei Business (??????) – economic
Sh?kan Asahi (????). Liberal.
Sh?kan Economist (????????). Economic
Sh?kan Kinyoubi (?????). Strong liberal.
Sh?kan Bunshun (????). Conservative
Sh?kan Diamond (????????). Economic
Sh?kan Gendai (????)
Sh?kan Josei (????). For women
Sh?kan Post (?????). Conservative
Sh?kan Shinchou (????). Conservative
Sh?kan Toyo Keizai (??????). Economic
Spa! (??!).
Sunday Mainichi (??????). Liberal

Monthly magazines
Bungei Shunjuu (????). Conservative.
Chuuou Kouron (????). Affiliated with the Yomiuri Shimbun. Conservative.
Seiron (??). Published by the Sankei Shimbun Company. Conservative.
Sekai (??). Liberal.


National papers
Yomiuri Shimbun (????). Conservative to neutral. First ranked in daily circulation at around 10 million per day. The Yomiuri exchanged a special contract with The Times. Affiliated with Nippon Television.
Asahi Shimbun (????). Strongly Progressive Left. Second ranked in daily circulation at around 7 million copies per day. Known for anti-American and pro-Chinese news paper. Affiliated with TV Asahi.
Mainichi Shimbun (????). Left. Third ranked in daily circulation—around 4 million per day. Affiliated with Tokyo Broadcasting System.
Nikkei Shimbun (??????). Economic paper in the style of The Wall Street Journal, Conservative with more centre-right. Fourth ranked in daily circulation at around 3 million copies per day. Affiliated with TV Tokyo.
Sankei Shimbun (????). Right-wing, pro-American and anti-Chinese newspaper. Sixth ranked in daily circulation at around 2 million copies per day. Affiliated with Fuji Television.
Regional papers
The Tokyo Shimbun (????) in Kanto and Chunichi Shimbun (????) in Ch?bu are both owned by the Chunichi company and have a cumulative circulation that places them fourth nationally. Other nationally-known regional papers include Nishinippon Shimbun (?????) in Kyushu, Hokkaido Shimbun (?????) in Hokkaido, Kahoku Shimpo (????) in Tohoku.

Specialty papers
Among niche newspapers are publications like the widely circulated Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (The Business and Technology Daily News), the Buddhist organization S?ka Gakkai’s daily Seikyo Shimbun (????), and Shimbun Akahata, the daily organ of the Japanese Communist Party. Other niches include papers devoted entirely to predicting the results of horse races. One of the best-known papers in the genre is Keiba Book (?????). Sh?kan Go (???) is a weekly newspaper that covers the results of professional Go tournaments and contains hints on Go strategy.

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