Belarus

Belarus hosts both state-owned and privately owned media. In 2009 there were in total 1,314 media outlets in the country, of which 414 state-owned and around 900 privately owned.

Print media

The biggest number of print media in Belarus are in Russian language (572 titles vs. 71 in Belarusian language, in 2009). The total circulation of national newspapers was 650,000, and 880,000 copies for the state regional press. Eight newspapers were deprived of license between 1997 and 2009.

Among the Belarus-language newspapers, the main and state-controlled one is Zviazda (??????, 40,000 copies). Other newspapers include Novy Chas (???? ???, 7,000 copies), Nasha Slova (???? ?????, 7,000 copies, newspaper about culture and history, published by the Francishak Skaryna Belarusian Language Society), Naša Niva (???? ????; 6,000 copies, the oldest Belarusian weekly newspaper founded in 1906 and revived in 1991, pro-opposition), and Holas Radzimy (????? ????i??, 2,000 copies), government-controlled newspaper for the Belarusian diaspora.

Regional dailies include the online Vitsebsk newspaper Narodnya Naviny Vitsebska (???????? ?????? ????????) as well as Pahonia (??????), a pro-opposition newspaper formerly published in Hrodna, only published online since being closed down by the government in 2001.

Among the Russian-language newspapers, the largest national newspaper is Sovetskaya Belorussia (????????? ??????????; over 500,000 copies), official newspaper of the Administration of the President of Belarus. Other dailies include Respublika (??????????; 119,500 copies), official newspaper of the Government of Belarus; Vo Slavu Rodiny (?? ????? ??????; 32,300 copies), official newspaper of the Belarusian Ministry of Defense; Narodnaya Gazeta (???????? ??????, 25,042 copies), official newspaper of the Parliament of Belarus; BelGazeta (?????????, 21,200 copies), independent national newspaper on business and politics; Belorusy i rynok (???????? ? ?????, 12,000 copies), weekly independent business newspaper.

Bilingual Russian/Belorusian newspapers include Narodnaja Volia (???????? ????, 15,000 copies), the largest national pro-opposition newspaper on politics; Hazeta Slonimskaya (?????? ??????????; ?????? ??????????; 7,000 to 8,000 copies), an independent local newspaper published in Slonim; Intex-Press (??????-?????, 17,300 copies), an independent local newspaper published in Baranavichy; Zhodzinskiya Naviny (?????????? ??????; Zhodino News) – published in Zhodzina; Vecherniy Brest (???????? ?????; Evening Brest) – published in Brest.

In 2015, official sources had registered a total of 713 newspapers and 808 magazines.

Radio

As of February 2009, there were 158 radio stations in Belarus, of which 137 state-owned and 21 private ones. 23 radio stations broadcast on FM, including the historic channels “????????” (Belarus), “????” (Roks), “????? ???” (Radio the World), “????? ?????” (Alpha radio), ??-?? (B-A), which have been on air since the early 1990s.

State-owned broadcaster Belteleradio broadcasts the radio’s First Channel, “Culture”, Radius FM, Radio Stolitsa and Radio Station “Belarus”. Local stations include Radio Brest, Radio Vitebsk, Gomel FM, Radio Grodno, and Radio Mogilev.

Other state radio stations include Alpha Radio (Publisher house “Soviet Belarus”), Radio Minsk (Government of Minsk), MV Radio (Government of Minsk region), Radio Unistar (Belarus State University and MediaInvest Gmbh), Novoe Radio (Federation of Trade Unions of Belarus), Pilot FM (Belarusian Republican Youth Union), Radio ONT (Ministry of Information Belarus 51%; Belarusbank 29%; “Factory of information technology” 20%) and Radio MIR – Belarus (MIR State Broadcasting).

Quasi-private radio stations include Radio Europa Plus Belarus, Radio Humor FM – Belarus (LLC Vashe Televidenie), Dushevnoe radio, Narodnoe radio, the “BA – International” joint venture with Radio BA – International and Radio Melodii Veka, and the “Russian Radio” Holding with Russian Radio Belarus and Radio ROKS Belarus.

Regional stations include MFM (Hrodna – 105.0 FM), Baranovichi FM (Baranovichi – 100.0 FM), Homiel plus (Homiel – 101.3 FM), Radio 107,4 FM (Homiel – 107.4 FM), Retro FM (Vitebsk – 104.6 FM, Polatsk – 104.7 FM), Radio Skif (Vorsha – 99.9 FM), Hit-radio (Minsk – 100.4 FM), Svoyo radio (Pinsk – 106.1 FM), Radio Naftan (Polatsk – 98.1 FM), and Nelly – info (Mozyr – 102.7 FM).

Independent radio stations include Radio Svaboda, European Radio for Belarus (FM and internet), Radio Racyja (FM and internet) and several web-radios including Radio Aplus Netradio and several channels of Radio ROKS.

The European Radio for Belarus (E?rapéjskaje Rádyjo dla Bie?arúsi) is an international radio station based in Warsaw that has provided independent news, information, and entertainment to the citizens of Belarus since February 2006. ERB operates on FM, lower FM, Internet, and Satellite, to promote European democratic values and assist the development of a new generation of journalists. Members of the Belarusian Association of Journalists (BAJ), as well as journalists at the former Radio 101.2, actively participated in the creation of this radio station.

Television

Television remains the main soure of information for Belarus citizens. The main TV channels are under control of the state. In 2009 there were 71 TV channels broadcasting in Belarus, of which 30 state-owned and 41 private channels. The main TV broadcasting companies and channels include:

The National State Television and Radio Company of the Republic of Belarus (Belteleradio, BTRC) is the state-owned television and the largest media group in Belarus. Belteleradio operates six television channels, of which five are distributed nationally and one is distributed internationally. It broadcasts Belarus 1 (News, current affairs, and general interest programs), Belarus 2 (Entertainment and sports programs), Belarus 3 (Cultural programs), Belarus 4 (Regional news, entertainment and cultural programs, and there are broadcasts separately for the Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk and Mogilev regions), Belarus 5 (Sport channel), Belarus 24 (International channel catering to viewers outside of Belarus) as well as NTV Belarus, Belarus version of NTV Russia, whose programs consist of content from NTV Russia and other Russian channels[48] Belteleradio has a staff of around 1,000 employees.
Obshchenatsional’noe Televidenie (All-National Television, ???/ONT) is Belarus’ second national TV station, replacing Channel One Russia since 2002 after a decree of the President of Belarus, though still broadcasting most of the channel’s contents in Russian and Belarusian languages. It is owned by the Ministry of Information of Belarus (51%), Belarusbank (29%) and “Factory of information technology” (20%).
Belsat TV (?????? TV) is an independent channel owned by Telewizja Polska, on air since December 2007.
STV (????????? ????????????) and Belarus RTR (a localized version of Russia’s RTR Planeta) are two channels owned by the Minsk City Government, launched in 2001 and 2008 respectively.
MIR, owned by MIR State Broadcasting, broadcasts since 2003.
Skif, owned by Telecom-Garant, is a regional television network on air since 1992.
BelMuzTV (a localized version of Russia’s Muz TV) and TNT-International (a localized version of TNT (Russia) and TNT-Comedy) are two channels owned by BelMuzTV Redaction, on air since 2006 and 2015 respectively.
VTV, owned by Dobrovidenie, is an entertainment channel on air since 2002.
8 Kanal (8 ?????) is an independent general entertainment channel, airing since 1996/2002.
Minsk TV (????? TV), owned by Cosmos TV, is a documentary channel launched in 2015.
The analog signal of TV channels from nearby Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania and Latvia is received in Belarus. Moreover, foreign TV programs from Russia, Poland, Ukraine and other Western European countries are broadcast by almost all cable TV operators.

Three cable television operators offer access in Belarus’ main cities to about 100 broadcast channels, also through IPTV.

Satellite TV channels include Belarus TV, a 24/7 state non-commercial satellite TV channel in the Belarus and Russian languages registered by Belteleradio in February 2005, as well as “The first musical channel”, launched in 2002 and soon the first Belarus interactive satellite TV channel, accessible to viewers in more than 80 countries.


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